Basic, the new mountain of one’s matchmaking BP with Na intake varied by times consumption, recommending you to definitely Na thickness can get reflect the connection which have BP top than natural Na intake does
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
That it data was used to determine whether the matchmaking between Na and you may BP may differ that have time intake. Numerous secret findings emerged. 2nd, just like the in earlier times advertised, the end result of Na cures are attenuated on the function of the Dashboard diet plan weighed against brand new manage diet, indicating one aspects of diet plus dictate the fresh BP a reaction to changes in Na intake. 5,several,thirteen Together with attenuating brand new BP reaction https://datingranking.net/tr/single-parent-match-inceleme/ to Na, brand new Dash diet along with decreased BP, in keeping with proof that regions of diet plan, including a heightened consumption from potassium, alone straight down BP. 14 3rd, the connection away from Na having time intake into BP continuing when the fresh new analyses was in fact stratified by race, apart from DBP among whites. 4th, which have stratification from the being obese reputation, larger differences in BP because of the times intake was in fact observed those types of who have been nonobese compared to obese.
Whilst the Dash–Na studies controlled Na thickness, and not pure Na consumption, the original results of this demo had been interpreted with respect to Na intake in the place of Na occurrence. The possible lack of revealing performance because of the Na thickness will get echo the newest lack of study to your opportunity consumption in lot of degree. Analysis of one’s dating of Na density that have mortality inside the observational studies have provided mixed show. The research away from Na occurrence which have death on the NHANES II follow-up investigation (Federal Health and Diet Test Questionnaire) and you can out of NHANES III ideal an inverse organization regarding Na and cardiovascular disease death, no matter if offered Na with respect to times consumption. fifteen,16 Within these training, but not, Na and energy intake was estimated using one twenty four-time keep in mind, that’s not enough to estimate an individual’s common dietary intake because of high time-to-go out adaptation both in Na intake and energy consumption in addition to their ratio. Then, times intake are implausibly low in one another degree. It is possible the observed matchmaking anywhere between Na consumption and you may heart problems mortality can be informed me of the significantly less than-revealing bias, that is, if over weight somebody report down Na thickness and are also more likely in order to pass away of heart problems, the new noticed dating can get reflect the brand new perception of being obese as opposed to eating plan. The most up-to-date evidence off a potential cohort research (n=716, 19-season realize-up) aligns towards consequence of the present day research, which have said incidence off aerobic situations twice as high some of those throughout the higher in the place of reduced quartile of Na density (22% in the place of 11%, respectively; P=0.005) predicated on eight-go out eating ideas compiled in the standard. 17